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Efficacy and Safety Studies on CardioXine™

Cardioxine™ contains NuLiv's proprietary CardioXine Complex™, Vitamins B6, B12, and Folic acid. CardioXine Complex™ contains natural and research-validated plant compounds isolated from a group of selected plants by a proprietary pharmaceutical extraction and formulation process. The Complex includes cordyceps mushroom, gynostemma pentaphyllum, hawthorn berries & other well researched botanicals. CordycepsPrime™ (Cordyceps mushroom)
1. Overview

The cordyceps mushroom is actually a fungi, which has been used as a health tonic in China for over 3000 years. Herbal Classification, the 17th century classical Chinese masterpiece still used today by traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, describes Cordyceps as one of the most effective herbs for promoting vibrant health.

However, due to its scarcity, wild Cordyceps mushroom has traditionally been available to only the very wealthy, and even today wild Cordyceps mushroom is sold at several thousand dollars a kilogram in Chinese herbal stores around the world. Even at this price, the supply is barely enough to meet the demand. Our cordyceps mushroom is a special strain that we then process using our PhytoCell technology. Cordyceps mushroom

2. Nutrients

NuLiv's cordyceps mushroom, branded as CordycepsPrime™ contains many essential amino acids; nucleosides; mannitol; plant sterols; minerals; Vitamin: thiamin, Riboflavin, E; and more.

3. Research

The effects of Cordyceps mushroom on cell and bodily functions have been studied in test tubes (in vitro), animals (in vivo), and humans. Specifically, the effects of Cordyceps mushroom on energy production in heart cells, oxygen uptake to heart muscle, ATP production in the mitochondria of human cells, oxygen level in lungs and SOD content in the liver tissue in mice were investigated. The peroxide lipid and oxidizing enzyme in the brain; heart rate; blood supply to coronary arteries; and heart flow rate in laboratory frogs were investigated. The survival time of mice under hypo-oxygenated conditions and vasodilation of blood vessel walls were also investigated (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).

Several double blind human trials on Cordyceps mushroom involving over one thousand patients have been carried out at thirteen major central, state, and local hospitals in People's Republic of China over the last 20 years. A brief summary of these trials is presented in the following table:

cordyceps mushroom

  1. Y.C. Tung. Clinical observations on hypercholesterol- emia and hyperlipidemia and Cordyceps. Geriatric Department, Beijing Medical University Hospital, 1995.
4. CordycepsPrime™

NuLiv's CordycepsPrime™, is produced by its proprietary fermentation technology from Cordyceps Paecilomyces Hepiali Chen et. Dai, the only Cordyceps mushroom strain that has been extensively studied in China and around the world. CordycepsPrime™ contain the highest levels of important plant compounds, such as adenosine and Cordycepic acid, as confirmed by in-house and third-party laboratory analysis.

Hawthorne Berry
Hawthorne berries have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Western folk medicines to strengthen cardiovascular function, lower blood pressure, and treat some heart related diseases. They are a popular alternative in select European countries for heart disease support.

Jiaogulan Ex™ (Gynostemma pentaphyllum)
1. Overview

Jiaogulan is a member of the gourd family that grows in southern China and some neighboring countries. In 1976, Japanese scientists first isolated the key ingredients in Jiaogulan, the gypenosides. 82 gypenosides have been identified so far in Jiaogulan, 4 of them have the exact same chemical structures as the ginsenosides Rb1, Rb3, Rd, and F2 found in Panax ginseng (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4).

Jiaogulan has been used in China for many centuries as a herbal support to support heart and circulatory health. Jiaogulan

2. Nutrients

Chemical analysis has shown that Jiaogulan contains (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) gypenosides; significant amounts of trace iron, calcium, copper, selenium; amino acids; Vitamins B, C & E; and Flavones.

  1. X.L. Guo, et al. Studies on the chemical constituents of G. longipes. Beijing Medical University, Beijing, China. Journal of Pharmacology 1997 Jul; 32(7):524-9.
  2. S. Paicente, et al. New dammarane-type glycosides from G. Pentaphyllum. Dipartimento di Chimica della Sostanze Naturali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Federico II, Italy. J Nat Prod 1995 Apr; 58(4):512-9.
3. Research of Jiaogulan Ex™

The effects of Jiaogulan on HDL and LDL cholesterol have been studied in several human clinical trails (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These studies investigated the relationship between Jiaogulan and the decomposition of lipids in adipose cells, the synthesis of glucose to lipids within adipose cells, and the fat deposits on blood vessel walls.

Other clinical studies (Ref. 6, 7) investigated Jiaogulan and its effect on hypertension and atherosclerosis. There were several in vivo (animal) studies (Ref. 8, 9, 10) on Jiaogulan and cardiovascular & circulatory functions. In vitro study by Vanderbilt University Medical Center on Jiaogulan extracts (Ref. 11) included in CardioXine™ reveals its effect on nitric oxide production. Mounting scientific evidence indicates that increases in nitric oxide level help promote cardiovascular health.

  1. 1. J. Shi, et al. Effects of Jiaogulan on patients with hyperlipidemia. Journal of Norman Bethune University of Medical Science, 2001; vol.1, No.4, p343.
  2. 2. M.A.Tanner, et al. The direct release of nitric oxide by gypenosides derived from the herb G. Pentaphyllum. Division of Cardiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and the Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Nitric Oxide 1999 Oct; 3(5):359.
4. Safety

The short term and long term adverse effects of Jiaogulan extracts on the heart, lung, liver, kidney, testicles, ovary functions; and WBC and RBC counts of mice were investigated by Zheng, Yang, and Du. No observed adverse effect levels were found with Jiaogulan. 5. Jiaogulan Ex™

Jiaogulan Ex™ is produced by NuLiv's proprietary PureExtract™ extraction process, standardized to 98% gypenosides, from a particular Jiaogulan strain that contains the specific plant compounds that have been identified to have the highest beneficial effects on heart and circulatory health.

  1. X.H. Xiao, et al. Systematic concept and development model for the production of G. Pentaphyllum. Sichuan Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing, China. Chongging Traditional Chinese Medicine Journal 1994 Jun; 19(6):332-4, 382.
  2. X.H. Xiao, et al. Agronomic standardization of Jiaogulan. Sichuan Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing, China. Traditional Chinese Medicine Journal of China 1994 May; 19(5):270-2, 318.
Notoginseng (Panax pseudoginseng)
Native to China, Notoginseng is grown commercially in the southern and central regions of the country. It has shown to support normal circulation and other heart functions.

PhytoAstra™ (Astragalus membranaceous)
In traditional Chinese medicine, Astragalus?most notable health benefit is to invigorate the circulation ("vital energy", "Qi") to improve cell health.

Astragalus is an outstanding toning and balancing herb in building up the body's resistance to stress and diseases (Ref. 1). Astragalus has been used in China for nearly 4,000 years as a booster for immune functions and to strengthen and tone the body's overall energy level as well as improving the digestion and supporting the spleen (Ref. 3).

Astragalus membranaceus is one of the most frequently used food supplements and remedies in China to help the body maintain its normal balance of health and wholeness (Ref. 4). "Make up energy and redress balance" is the most central quality of Astragalus. Astragalus has also been well researched in its immune applications (Ref. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

Astragalus contains Glycosides, polysaccharides, choline and betaine, folic acid, various amino acids, and fourteen mineral trace elements, including selenium, zinc, and iron.

RosaEx™ (Rosa roxburghii) (Cili fruit)
1. Overview

R. Roxburghii is a low growing fruit tree native to few remote regions in China. R. Roxburghii is rich in Vitamin C, phenols, Vitamins and Flavonoids, trace elements, and amino acids. The natural fruit contains 46 times more Vitamin C (per 100 grams) than oranges, 120 times more Flavonoids than your average green vegetable, and 10-60 times more than that of other fruits. Rosa roxburghii (Cili fruit)

NuLiv's lab assays and in vitro studies have demonstrated that its R. Roxburghii fruit extract, trade-marked RosaEx™, produces potent SOD-like activity that neutralizes superoxide, a highly harmful free radical. The SOD inducing micro nutrients found in NuLiv's RosaEx™ is converted in the human body by its enzymatic action to SOD like compounds and is 100% utilizable, unlike SOD derived from other plants which are mostly destroyed by stomach acids.

2. Nutrients

RosaEx™ contains extremely high contents of Vitamin C (3% or greater), phenols (10% or greater), flavonoids, Vitamins A, B1, B2, D, E and trace elements (Ref. 1). RosaEx™ also contains plant compounds that produce potent SOD like activity in human body (see section 5) (Ref. 2, 8).

3. Research

LDL oxidation has been suggested as a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. The antibodies against oxidized LDL have been identified in sera of patients with atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL is known to be taken up through scavenger receptors and results in the formation of macrophage-derived foam cell, which may also enhance the progression of atherosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of macrophages (Ref. 2, 4, 7).

The effects of R. Roxburghii on free radical metabolism, free radical injury to endothelium cells in blood vessels and capillaries and microcirculation in humans were investigated by Ma and Zhang (Ref. 3, 7). The effects of R. Roxburghii on LDL oxidation; oxidized LDL-induced growth of macrophages; oxidized LDL-induced Cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages were investigate by Zhang and etc. (Ref. 7) in vitro. The effects of R. Roxburghii on the cardiovascular functions in CO, CI, SV, LVET, and LVETI, and AC throughputs and the PVR were investigated by Ma (Ref. 3).

The effects of R. Roxburghii on anti-lipoid peroxidation in human body, LPO concentration in blood plasma, SOD activity of erthrocytes, and the ratio of SOD to LPO were investigated by Tang et al. (Ref. 5).

  1. NuLiv Science. Biochemical Features of R. Roxburghii Tratt Fruit.
  2. P.J. Yao, et al. Study on Micro-molecular Compounds with SOD-like activity in R. Roxburghii Tratt. 2nd International Congress of the Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-Potchefstroom University 30 September 1998. Guangxi University, Guangxi, China.
  3. Y.X. Ma, et al. The aging retarding effect of 'Long-Life CiLi'. Mech Ageing Dev. 1997 Jun; 96(1-3):171-80.
RosaEx™ Nutrition Facts 4. Nutrition Facts (per 100 grams)

The nutritional assay on RosaEx™ was performed by NuLiv Research Laboratory based on international accepted protocols.

5. SOD (Super oxide dismutase) Assay

NuLiv has performed SOD and SOD-like activity assays on RosaEx™ at FIRDI (a premiere / leading research institute) and at its own research laboratory.

One example:

Performed by: FIRDI
Date: Mar 26 ~ April 02, 2003
MOA used: Scavenging of Superoxide Radical(O2)Assay (Ref. 4, 5)
Instrument: UV/VIS Spectrophotometer
Reagent: 0.1M pH 7.4 Sodium Phosphate buffer; 300µM of NBT; 0.50 units/mL of XOD; 1.1 mM of HPX
Result: 27900 IU SOD in NuLiv's RosaEx™.

  1. T. M. Millar, et al.(2002)Xanthine oxidase is a peroxynitrite synthase: newly identified roles for a very old enzyme. Redox Report, Vol. 7, No. 2.
  2. A. Dyaz, et al.(1999 Interpretation of the sod-like activity of a series of copper(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazones. Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Vol. 2, 358-360.
6. Artificial Gastric Acid SOD (Super Oxide Dismutase) Assay

NuLiv's artificial gastric acid SOD assay shows that RosaEx™'s anti-oxidative activity increases over a time period up to two hours. This is a sharp contrast to SOD found in other plants that are mostly destroyed by gastric acid.

Fig 1

Fig 2
7. Safety

The LD50 dosage, the 30 day effects of R. Roxburghii on blood platelet, erythrocyte, SGPT, NPN, and leucocyte counts in mice have been investigated (Ref. 1).

Rosa roxburghii (Cili fruit) 8. RosaEx™

NuLiv's R. roxburghii extract, trade-marked RosaEx™, is produced from premium ripe R. Roxburghii fruit by its proprietary PureExtract™ extraction technology. RosaEx™ is standardized to min. 3% vitamin C, 10% phenols, and 25,000 i.u./G SOD-like activity.

Salvia miltiorrhiza

Salvia miltiorrhiza, or Dang Shen, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, often in combination with other herbs. Remedies containing Dang Shen are used traditionally for diversity of ailments, particularly cardiac and vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis or blood clotting abnormalities.

The ability of Dang Shen to "thin" the blood ("Xue") and reduce blood clotting is well documented. Dang Shen invigorates the blood and improve circulation ("Qi").

Benefit of other ingredients
Vitamin B6, Folic acid, B12: work closely together to control blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels degrade and inhibit the formation of the three main structural components of the artery, collagen, elastin and the proteoglycans.

Vitamin K2: move calcium from blood serum to bone to reduce calcium buildup in arteries.

Learn more about CardioXine:
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Description & Ingredients

Background Info on Heart Health
Efficacy & Safety Studies on CardioXine

CardioXine FAQ

Testimonials (Hospital Reports)

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CardioXine helps maintain healthy cholesterol, HDL, LDL and homocysteine levels

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